Text: Ivanna Borovets
Many parents, keen on the theory of early development, try to teach children oral counting literally from the cradle - bright cards, noisy cubes, wooden beads and abacus are used. Life around figured out the pros and cons of the five popular methods of teaching children to oral counting and learned from experts whether newfangled methods are really better than traditional ones and how parents can deal with their children independently without resorting to early development centers.
Traditional Leushina technique
In addition to the methods of learning how to count on fingers or on counting sticks that are understandable to everyone, there is a traditional approach to teaching oral counting, which was developed by Soviet teacher Anna Mikhailovna Leushina. It is according to this technique that they teach to count in kindergarten: children learn to see and move recounted objects in space, helping themselves with words. For example, "cherry, still cherry" and so on. The next step is to get acquainted with the concepts of “more”, “less” and “equally”, that is, the score is actually without the use of numbers. Finally, children call the number of subjects, learn to count from smaller to larger and vice versa and can answer the question "how much?"
Develops motor activity and speech, as the child speaks the count.
Glenn Doman's Method
This method of teaching counting is based on the use of cards with large bright dots. The principle of learning is simple: parents show the child a card and name the number. First, take cards on which the number of points does not exceed five, then cards with an increasing number of points are used: 20, 50 - and so on up to 100. Thanks to such training, the child learns to count the number of objects visually, without resorting to the usual recounting with pronunciation or addition-subtraction. True, in order to achieve any results, you need to do cards several times a day, which is quite tiring for both the child and parents.
Children are easier to grasp the concept of quantity without reference to the image of numbers or objects.
They learn to count immediately large numbers - up to 100 and beyond.
"Stochchet" by Nikolai Zaitsev
The technique is suitable for children from three to four years old; it is based on special tables with numbers from 0 to 9 and their images. With the help of the first table, the child easily masters addition and subtraction in the mind within a hundred. The second - helps in the development of three-digit numbers and gives an idea of their composition: hundreds, tens, thousands. The third introduces students to multi-digit numbers. The main objective of the methodology is to connect together the sound, quantitative and digital images of the number, for this the child trains in finding, recognizing and naming the number. As conceived by the author, having learned to find any number in the table, the child will easily master addition and subtraction within a hundred.
Easy to teach counting within 100.
Tables help the child to properly grasp the essence of the score without being tied to objects or fingers.
Methodology of Sergey Polyakov
It is based on the integrity of children's thinking and immediately involves two types of memory: visual and motor. Trainings are held with the help of digital cubes, according to which children learn to know the quantity without counting. First, the child needs to master the count to ten, then learn to subtract and add 3, 5, 6 and so on right away. In addition, children usually intuitively understand what “more” and “less” are. You can train during games, food, walks - wherever there are several items that can be counted.
Game form of employment.
Short duration of classes (10-20 minutes).
A new-fashioned fast counting technique that has been actively developed recently. It is based on abacus abacus invented in antiquity. First, children need to learn how to set numbers by sorting bones with fingers. Then the scores are removed, and the children train to quickly perform calculations in the imagination. Teachers who deal with mental arithmetic with children say that counting classes develop imaginative and logical thinking in children, as they use both hemispheres of the brain at the same time. At the same time, creative thinking and ingenuity develops. Mental arithmetic is taught from four to 12 years old.
Fast results in mastering counting skills.
Fine motor skills are being worked out.
What method of learning account?
game teacher, author of the site "Skipping Mathematics"
The most important thing is not to focus on any one technique, but to alternate between different counting materials and tasks. The ability to count objects is much more important than the ability to write numbers and examples.
The traditional Leushina technique has its drawbacks: doing it, children spend a lot of time and energy learning how to recognize numbers, pronounce numbers in order, and learn by heart the composition of the number. Often children learn that “five plus three equals eight” as a rhyme without understanding and cannot say how much 3 + 5 will be and how much 3 + 3 + 2 will be. This is for them a completely new separate information that needs to be memorized separately.
The Doman methodology, in my opinion, has a certain minus: children remember this card with randomly spaced dots in their faces. But, for example, if you make a new card with the same number of points, then the children will have to remember it again.
Mental arithmetic is a popular fashion technique, and parents are often captivated by exactly what it promises at the same time the development of interhemispheric connections, oral counting and much more. In reality, the technique itself is not suitable for all children, and this depends primarily on the teacher.
Many children master the oral score very well, playing board games from the series “Gangs of Wise Men”: “Turbo Account”, “Fructo10”, “Floors”, “Sneakers” and others. In addition, there are a large number of different counting materials: in addition to counting on fingers and counting sticks, I would mention “counting beads” - a rope with five blue and five red beads; Unifix counting cubes, with which you can introduce children to addition, subtraction, multiplication; Base Ten counting sets, which include cubes to indicate units, sticks for tens, planes for hundreds, and a thousand are presented in the form of a large cube. There is also a beautiful English counting material "Numikon" - dice with round holes. When working with all these counting materials, children use both motility and visual support.
founder of the Soroban oral account school
Japanese developers do not hide the fact that people with certain intellectual inclinations can master mental arithmetic. Therefore, the methodology in the form in which it is taught in other classical schools of mental arithmetic works only for 25% of students. Usually the study of the theory is stretched to six months, only then children can try themselves verbally.
We finalized the theoretical base so that during the learning process the child can perform practical tasks: in “Soroban” there is an online simulator that gives exercises in a playful way. The child independently performs the tasks and immediately sees the result, which increases his motivation. In fact, the practical benefits in everyday life of a quick ability to count a little. We train the brain: we teach imaginative thinking, innovative solutions and much more. A quick score is the best way, the simulator to achieve the goal.
How to do at home?
Lecturer in the courses "Intellect" and "Development of Mathematical Intelligence" "Presidential School"
It is advisable to show the child clearly how the skill of counting is applied in life. So, the count can be learned by measuring the length of the table or other objects with your hands, on the Lego blocks during the game (counting the details when making crafts), counting the number of objects, for example, of a certain color or shape. So the child will master the concept of number in a comprehensive way, be able to "touch", "feel" the numbers. Usually, at the beginning of classes at school, children not only master the score from 0 to 10 and vice versa, but also know how to correlate numbers with the score of real objects, solve simple arithmetic and logic problems and recognize simple geometric figures.
It is very useful to play with the children in the store, and the same counting sticks or counting dice can be coins. It is important to give preschoolers a lot of tasks on the principle of "translation from language to language", for example: throw a dice, and if 5 is dropped, then stick five stickers or build a house of five dice and so on.
In addition, it is important for children to pass any knowledge through the body, therefore it is useful to translate numbers into movements: count the number of steps, jumps, claps. For example: if I say “kva-kva-kva”, then you have to jump three times, and if “kar-kar” - wave your hands twice, well, if “kar-kva-kva”, then wave your hands once and two times to jump. In order for children to better remember the numbers and their sequence, it is useful to play hopscotch on the pavement together, jumping over the numbers in the correct order. It is possible and necessary to deal with the account in between cases, if only these classes would please you.
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