The daily comfort of all the inhabitants of the city apartment depends on the electrics circuit. Most of us know that there are not many sockets and it is better to place them at the level of 25-30 centimeters from the floor, and the switches at the height of 85-90 centimeters. But this basic knowledge is not enough to make your home truly ergonomic. Brainstorm Buro designer Galina Tishutina compiled for Life around a detailed guide on how to plan an electrician in an apartment.
Automatic and RCD
Once we came across a customer’s desire to make a huge-sized shield for a couple of dozen assault rifles in a 1969 house with a gas stove. It seemed that the solution would be very reliable. But in the end, such a large number of machines was not justified.
It all depends on how much power the input machine is at the very beginning of the circuit, that is, near the electric meter. The formula is simple: power is equal to current strength times voltage. Thus, if your input machine is 25 A, then you will have 25 A x 220 V = 5.5 kW in total for all your electrical appliances in the apartment. And what happens if you turn on a little more at one point in time? Everyone knows that they will knock out traffic jams. But let's figure out what is behind this, and understand the role of automata.
The machine will instantly shut down in the event of a short circuit or in the case of an RCD (residual current device) - in case of current leakage. Its main task is to prevent heating and destruction of the wiring with a smooth increase in load. That is, when you turned on too many energy consumers on a winter evening, the machine should work first, take the bump so that the wiring remains cold, and therefore, intact. To accomplish this task, the power of the machine must be directly related to the cross-section of the cable that is connected to it.
Hence our main advice: carefully look at the material of the input cable (copper or aluminum) in the electric meter of your apartment, what section this cable is and in what condition it is. This will determine the real possibilities for the total power of electrical appliances in your home.
If during the repair you redo all the electrics again, then it is worth making the hotel system, which we already talked about. All that is needed is to get all the lighting circuits on a separate group of machines in the dashboard. In practice, this is a few extra meters of cable and some effort to lay it. But on the other hand, a master switch can be included in the circuit, which through the relay will control this group of machines. The master switch looks like a regular key, and it is better to place it directly at the front door. And if the apartment is small and there is not much lighting, then you can do with a conventional switch: it opens the circuit to 2.2 kW, which is quite enough. Now, going to the street, you press one button - and the apartment is plunged into darkness. But at the same time, all household appliances will continue to work.
Hallway and corridor
For the hallway and corridor, we recommend providing several scenarios. The most universal ones are the maximum overhead light, the soft illumination of the walls with the ability to adjust the direction (useful for illuminating paintings and other objects) and something precise. In the hallway it is very important to think carefully about the lighting of the growth mirror, avoiding the contrasting shadows on the face of the beholder. Sometimes in the morning, some of the inhabitants of the apartment would like to quietly pack up and leave without waking up with the bright light of everyone else, so the conclusion for a small lamp on the table in the hallway would be very useful.
If the corridor is long, then for the convenience of sudden night walks to the toilet or to the refrigerator, you can make lower night lights, we call it "take-off" - by analogy with the runway. You will get additional comfort if you connect these lamps to the motion sensor: they will turn on gently on their own, light up the corridor, indicating the path, and then turn off after a while. The main advantage of this lighting circuit is invisibility and comfort, because the lamps are close to the floor and therefore do not make a sleepy person squint.
A good idea in the hallway is to think over a place where a Wi-Fi router and other gadgets, such as a NAS drive, will be located. At this point, you need an additional number of outlets and at least an Ethernet cable for switching a smart TV.
In the bedroom, our main recommendation is to use walk-through switches. They are very convenient: you can turn on the light with one switch at the door, and turn off the other, which is located by the bed. However, it is necessary to ensure that the electrician correctly connects the wires and the switches are in agreement with each other according to the location of the keys. That is, if at the door of the room you turned on the light by pressing the top of the switch, then intuitively you will try to press the bottom of the reciprocal passage switch by the bed. And vice versa, and since the passage switches do not have a predetermined switching position, they work like a swing. This small nuance is difficult to catch during the repair, but it can be very noticeable in everyday life.
Also, in the layout of the bedroom, we always do a “crib check”, trying to simulate the situation of furniture placement, if the baby also lives in the bedroom for some time. Even if you understand that this is not your scenario for the near future, it can be envisaged to make the layout more competent. In addition, perhaps one day it will be appreciated as a plus by potential buyers.
Living room and kitchen
In the living room, as well as in the bedroom, it is important to correctly use walk-through switches. We recommend that you duplicate all circuit breakers around the dining table. This is very convenient: without rising, you can adjust the light around.
Traditionally, a cozy lampshade creates coziness and romance over the dining table. To make the bulb adjustment smooth, use a dimmer switch. In this case, position the dimmer also at arm's length. Think about seasonal lighting. For example, determine the place where the tree will stand, and decide where the garland will be included. In this case, it is very good to use sockets that are controlled from a switch.
In the kitchen, try to provide for the light control unit to be in the area of the kitchen set and in the reach of the hostess. If the illumination of the working surface suddenly became insufficient, there should be the ability to quickly and easily add the upper light with one click.
On a kitchen apron you always want to find a middle ground in the number of outlets: on the one hand, have enough of them for all gadgets, and on the other hand, don't get too bulky blocks of frames. Our advice - count the gadgets and add in reserve. Almost everyone remembers a socket for a kettle and a microwave, but in recent years, household coffee makers have come to us, and cappuccinators and coffee grinders come to them. More crock-pots, blenders, bread machines and even yogurt makers. Nobody knows how many innovations will be yet to come, but it would be a good idea to provide sockets for them already at the repair stage.
Over the years of the Soviet past, we are accustomed to the fact that the bathroom light switches are on the outside. First of all, this was caused by safety reasons, because inside the bathroom there could be significant humidity, which would lead to oxidation of the contacts. Modern switches have become much more technologically advanced, so we recommend placing switches inside the bathroom whenever possible. In this case, no one can turn off the light when you are inside.
We also actively use motion sensors with a timer for 5-7 minutes for scenarios in which someone came in only to wash their hands quickly. Even in the bathroom, cozy contours of light at the level of the shoulders and the floor always look very interesting - mirror lighting, lamps, soaring bathroom lighting near the floor and niches in the walls.
As for the sockets: in the modern bathroom near the sink, in addition to toothbrushes, which are often electric, household irrigators appeared. It would be nice for each device to have its own waterproof socket with a cover, because open tees in the sink area is not a very cool idea.
If you have a wardrobe, then it is better to provide at least two lighting contours in it. One should illuminate the entire space, so it is located quite high. And the second circuit should additionally accent highlight key places, for example, a mirror. And, of course, do not forget at least about one outlet: one day it will definitely come in handy.
The peculiarity of the nursery is that in this room everything changes very quickly. Therefore, we always recommend that you use a lot of lighting contours, but do not get attached to stationary lamps and sconces on the walls to leave maximum flexibility in the arrangement of furniture. We advise you to plan outlet blocks for each wall and use at least two outlet circuits connected to the switches so that you can get a cozy spotlight almost anywhere in the room.
PHOTO: cover - Dima Tsyrenshchikov,
1 - shutterstock.com/Photographee.eu, 2 - Brainstorm Buro, 3 - Marko Subotin, 4 - shutterstock.com/Photographee.eu, 5 - shutterstock.com/WorldWide